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In, Germans lived in Uzbekistan; 95 Uzbekistan percent have left. In, Jews lived in Uzbekistan; 80 percent have left. Linguistic Affiliation. Uzbek is the language of about twenty million Uzbeks living in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. The language is Turkic and abounds with dialects, including Qarlug which served as the literary language for much of Uzbek historyKipchak, Lokhay, Oghuz, Qurama, and Sart, some of which come from other languages. Uzbek emerged as a distinct language in the fifteenth century.
It is so close to modern Uyghur that speakers of each language can converse easily. Prior to Russian colonization it would often have been hard to say where one Turkic language started and another ended. But through prescribed datijg, shifts in dialect coalesced into distinct languages. The Soviets replaced its Arabic script briefly with a Roman script and then with Cyrillic. Since independence there has been a shift back to Roman script, as well cultufe a push to eliminate words borrowed from Russian. About 14 percent cilture the chlture non-Uzbek—speak Russian as their first language; 5 percent speak Tajik.
Most Russians do not speak Uzbek. Under the Soviet Union, Russian was taught as the Soviet lingua franca, but Uzbek was supported as the indigenous Uzbekitan of the republic, ironically culutre in the deterioration of other native languages and dialects. Today many people still speak Russian, but the government is heavily promoting Uzbek. Symbols of Uzbekistan's independence datimg past glories are most common. The flag and national colors—green for nature, white for peace, red for life, and blue for water—adorn murals and walls. The Uzbekistan culture dating stars on the flag symbolize the twelve regions of the country.
The crescent moon, a symbol of Islam, is common, though its appearance on the national flag is meant not as a religious symbol but as a metaphor for rebirth. The mythical bird Semurg on the state seal also symbolizes a national renaissance. Cotton, the country's main source of wealth, is displayed on items from the state seal to murals to teacups. The architectures of Samara and Bukhara also symbolize past achievements. Amir Timur, who conquered a vast area of Asia from his seat in Samarkand in the fourteenth century, has become a major symbol of Uzbek pride and potential and of the firm but just and wise ruler—a useful image for the present government, which made the Year of Amir Timur.
Timur lived more than a century before the Uzbeks reached Uzbekistan. Independence Day, 1 September, is heavily promoted by the government, as is Navruz, 21 March, which highlights the country's folk culture. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The Uzbeks coalesced by the fourteenth century in southern Siberia, starting as a loose coalition of Turkic-Mongol nomad tribes who converted to Islam. In the first half of the fifteenth century Abu al-Khayr Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, led them south, first to the steppe and semidesert north of the Syr-Daria River.
At this time a large segment of Uzbeks split off and headed east to become the Kazakhs. In Abu'l Khayr was killed by a competing faction, but by the Uzbeks had regrouped under Muhammad Shaybani Khan, and invaded the fertile land of modern Uzbekistan. They expelled Amir Timur's heirs from Samarkand and Herat and took over the city-states of Khiva, Khojand, and Bokhara, which would become the Uzbek capital. Settling down, the Uzbeks traded their nomadism for urban living and agriculture. The first century of Uzbek rule saw a flourishing of learning and the arts, but the dynasty then slid into decline, helped by the end of the Silk Route trade.
In invaders from Iran defeated Bokhara and Khiva, breaking up the Uzbek Empire and replacing any group identity with the division between Sarts, or city dwellers, and nomads. What followed was the Uzbek emirate of Bokhara and Samarkand, and the khanates of Khiva and Kokand, who ruled until the Russian takeover. Russia became interested in Central Asia in the eighteenth century, concerned that the British might break through from colonial India to press its southern flank. Following more than a century of indecisive action, Russia in invaded Bokhara, then brutally subjugated Khiva in Both were made Russian protectorates. InKhokand was annexed. All were subsumed into the Russian province of Turkistan, which soon saw the arrival of Russian settlers.
The s produced the Jadid reform movement, which, though short-lived, sought to establish a community beholden neither to Islamic dogma nor to Russian colonists, marking the first glimmer of national identity in many years.
If they are flat friends or relatives, they may mean each other on the statistics. Ones houses, shut of whether they meet to continued or poor, takeover a technical electric, with the sole's wealth and trading displayed only for cashiers. Men ago sit cross-legged, women with our heroes to one side.
With the Russian Revolution in grew hopes of independence, but by the Bolsheviks had reasserted control. In Soviet planners drew the borders for the soviet socialist republics Uzbekitan Uzbekistan and Karakalpakistan, based around the dominant ethnic groups. In Tajikstan was split off from the south of Uzbekistan, causing lasting dahing between the two; many Uzbeks regard Tajiks as Persianized Uzbeks, while Tajikstan resented Uzbekistan's retention of the Tajik cities of Bokhara cupture Samarkand. Karakalpakistan was transferred to the Uzbekistan SSR inas an autonomous region. Over the ensuing decades, Soviet leaders solidified loose alliances and other nationalities into what would become Uzbek culture.
After the coup failed, Uzbekistan declared its independence on 1 September. Though shifting away from communism, President Islom Kharimov, who had been the Communist Party's first secretary in Uzbekistan, has maintained absolute control over the independent state. He has continued to define a single Uzbek culture, while obscuring its Soviet creation. National Identity. The Soviet government, and to a lesser extent the Russian colonial government that preceded it, folded several less prominent nationalities into the Uzbeks. The government then institutionalized a national Uzbek culture based on trappings such as language, art, dress, and food, while imbuing them with meanings more closely aligned with Communist ideology.
Islam was removed from its central place, veiling of women was banned, and major and minor regional and ethnic differences were smoothed over in favor of an ideologically acceptable uniformity. Since the government has kept the Soviet definition of their nationhood, simply because prior to this there was no sense or definition of a single Uzbek nation. But it is literally excising the Soviet formation of the culture from its history books; one university history test had just 1 question of dealing with the years to Ethnic Relations.
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Since independence, tightening border controls and competition for jobs and resources have caused rating for some of these Uzbekistan culture dating, despite warm relations among the states of the region. In Junerioting in the Ferghana Valley killed datihg of Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported there in Across the border in Osh, Kyrgyzstan, the Uzbek majority rioted in over denial of land. There is official support of minority groups such as Uzbekistan culture dating, Koreans, and Tatars. These groups have cultural centers, and in a law that was to Uzbekistab made Uzbek the only language of official communication was relaxed.
Nevertheless, non-Uzbek-speakers have complained that they face difficulties finding jobs and cultuee a university. As a result of this and of poor economic conditions, many Russians and others have left Uzbekistan. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space In ancient times the Uzbekustan of Samarkand and Bokhara were regarded as jewels of Islamic architecture, thriving under Amir Timur and his descendants the Timurids. They remain major tourist attractions. During the Soviet period, cities became filled with concrete-slab apartment blocks of four to nine stories, similar to those found across the USSR.
In villages and suburbs, residents were able to live in more traditional one-story houses built around a courtyard. These houses, regardless of whether they belong to rich or poor, present a drab exterior, with the family's wealth and taste displayed only for guests. Khivan houses have a second-story room for entertaining guests. Since independence, separate houses have become much more popular, supporting something of a building boom in suburbs of major cities. One estimate puts two-thirds of the population now living in detached houses. The main room of the house is centered around the dusterhon, or tablecloth, whether it is spread on the floor or on a table.
Although there are not separate areas for women and children, women tend to gather in the kitchen when male guests are present. Each town has a large square, where festivals and public events are held. Parks are used for promenading; if a boy and a girl are dating, they are referred to as walking together. Benches are in clusters, to allow neighbors to chat. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Bread holds a special place in Uzbek culture. At mealtime, bread will be spread to cover the entire dusterhon. Traditional Uzbek bread, tandir non, is flat and round.
It is always torn by hand, never placed upside down, and never thrown out. Meals begin with small dishes of nuts and raisins, progressing through soups, salads, and meat dishes and ending with palov, a rice-and-meat dish synonymous with Uzbek cuisine throughout the former Soviet Union; it is the only dish often cooked by men. Other common dishes, though not strictly Uzbek, include monti, steamed dumplings of lamb meat and fat, onions, and pumpkin, and kabob, grilled ground meat.